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:: Volume 15, Issue 2 (4-2022) ::
jccnursing 2022, 15(2): 40-59 Back to browse issues page
Causes and Consequences of Hypoxia/Hypoxemia due to COVID-19: A Narrative Literature Review
Noushin Gashmardi
Department of Basic Sciences, Bint-ul-Hadi Sadr Campus, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (559 Views)
Background and aim: COVID-19 is the third pandemic disease with respiratory manifestations after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-Cov) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-Cov). One of the problems of patients with SARS-CoV2 infection is hypoxia and hypoxemia, which is considered to be seriously life-threatening. Given that there is no sufficient consensus to causes and consequences of hypoxia / hypoxemia, therefore this study was conducted to review the causes and consequences of hypoxia/hypoxemia due to COVID-19.
Methods: This narrative review study was carried out through a library literature review in the databases including Science direct, Scopus, EMBASE ، Web of Science ، PubMed, SID, WHO, CDC, Springer, Elsevier and Google Scholar search engine in Persian and English during 2019 to 2022. Articles were evaluated and selected based on the inclusion and exit criteria. At first, duplicate articles in regards to their titles and then unrelated articles were deleted.  Finally, data analysis were done by a comprehensive review of articles and the removal of those that were not related to the objectives of the present study.
Results: Out of 1275 searched articles, 42 were selected and analyzed. The results showed that lung injuries, activation of immune system and induction of inflammatory reactions, central nervous system injuries and underlying diseases are the causes of hypoxia and hypoxemia. Brain and nerve damages, gastrointestinal disorders, heart damages and liver damage can be caused by hypoxia and hypoxemia and delirium, encephalopathy, encephalitis, seizures and kidney damage caused by hypoxia.
Conclusion: Although respiratory infection is more common in patients with COVID-19, some patients suffer from hypoxia or hypoxemia and the side effects associated with both. In order to cause oxygen homeostasis, early detection and therapeutic interventions are essential that during oxygen therapy, secondary injuries of this therapeutic intervention should be considered. Also, investigating the level of inflammatory and immune markers, may help in the early detection of them in patients.
 
Article number: 5
Keywords: Organs, Clinical Manifestations, SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19), Hypoxai, Hypoxemic
Full-Text [PDF 2088 kb]   (300 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2022/04/30 | Accepted: 2022/06/14 | Published: 2022/06/14
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Gashmardi N. Causes and Consequences of Hypoxia/Hypoxemia due to COVID-19: A Narrative Literature Review. jccnursing 2022; 15 (2) :40-59
URL: http://jccnursing.com/article-1-625-en.html


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Volume 15, Issue 2 (4-2022) Back to browse issues page
نشریه پرستاری مراقبت‌ ویژه Journal of Critical Care Nursing
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