Critical Care Nursing

Published by: Kowsar

Effectiveness of Group Psychological Counseling on the Pregnancy Anxiety and Fear of Vaginal Delivery in the Pregnant Women: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Elahe Momeni 1 , Katayoun Alidostishahraki 2 , * , Mozghan Taebi 3 , Mehdi Hoseini 4 and Tanya Dahesh 5
Authors Information
1 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
3 Department of Operating Room and Anesthesiology, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4 Department Psychology, School of Medical Science, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
5 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Article information
  • Critical Care Nursing: May 2018, 11 (2); e74212
  • Published Online: July 24, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 10, 2018
  • Revised: July 10, 2018
  • Accepted: July 14, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ccn.74212

To Cite: Momeni E , Alidostishahraki K , Taebi M, Hoseini M, Dahesh T . Effectiveness of Group Psychological Counseling on the Pregnancy Anxiety and Fear of Vaginal Delivery in the Pregnant Women: A Quasi-Experimental Study, Crit Care Nurs J. 2018 ; 11(2):e74212. doi: 10.5812/ccn.74212.

Copyright © 2018, Critical Care Nursing. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Poudevigne MS, O'Connor PJ. A review of physical activity patterns in pregnant women and their relationship to psychological health. Sports Med. 2006;36(1):19-38. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200636010-00003. [PubMed: 16445309].
  • 2. Giurgescu C, Penckofer S, Maurer MC, Bryant FB. Impact of uncertainty, social support, and prenatal coping on the psychological well-being of high-risk pregnant women. Nurs Res. 2006;55(5):356-65. doi: 10.1097/00006199-200609000-00008. [PubMed: 16980836].
  • 3. Firouzbakht M, Nikpour M, Khefri S, Jamali B, Kazeminavaee F, Didehdar M. The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety during the Process of Childbirth-Northern Iran: Clinical Trial Study. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2015;5(5):348-52. doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.165260. [PubMed: 26500792]. [PubMed Central: PMC4594348].
  • 4. Salomonsson B, Wijma K, Alehagen S. Swedish midwives' perceptions of fear of childbirth. Midwifery. 2010;26(3):327-37. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2008.07.003. [PubMed: 18774630].
  • 5. Joinson C, Heron J, Butler U, von Gontard A; Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Study Team. Psychological differences between children with and without soiling problems. Pediatrics. 2006;117(5):1575-84. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-1773. [PubMed: 16651311].
  • 6. Linares Scott TJ, Heil SH, Higgins ST, Badger GJ, Bernstein IM. Depressive symptoms predict smoking status among pregnant women. Addict Behav. 2009;34(8):705-8. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.04.003. [PubMed: 19411145]. [PubMed Central: PMC2708672].
  • 7. Kizilirmak A, Baser M. The effect of education given to primigravida women on fear of childbirth. Appl Nurs Res. 2016;29:19-24. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2015.04.002. [PubMed: 26856483].
  • 8. Barcelona de Mendoza V, Harville EW, Savage J, Giarratano G. Experiences of Intimate Partner and Neighborhood Violence and Their Association With Mental Health in Pregnant Women. J Interpers Violence. 2018;33(6):938-59. doi: 10.1177/0886260515613346. [PubMed: 26576616]. [PubMed Central: PMC4870174].
  • 9. Khoursandi M, Vakilian K, Torabi Goudarzi M, Abdi M. [Childbirth preparation using behavioral-cognitive skill in childbirth outcomes of primiparous women]. J Babol Univ Med Sci. 2013;15(4):76-80. Persian.
  • 10. Taghipour A, Sadat Borghei N, Latifnejad Roudsari R, Keramat A, Jabbari Nooghabi H. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2016;4(4):339-51. [PubMed: 27713897]. [PubMed Central: PMC5045978].
  • 11. Weis JR, Greene JA. Mental Health in Pregnant Adolescents: Focus on Psychopharmacology. J Pediatr. 2016;169:297-304. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.10.068. [PubMed: 26616248].
  • 12. Ahmadi A, Moosavi Sahibalzamani S, Ghavami F, Shafi Far Y, Fathi Ashtiani A. [Effects of psychological interventions on postpartum depression, anxiety and infants' weight in primipara women]. Prev Care Nurs Midwifery J. 2014;4(1):19-31. Persian.
  • 13. Cohen LS, Nonacs R, Viguera AC, Reminick A. Diagnosis and treatment of depression during pregnancy. CNS Spectr. 2004;9(3):209-16. doi: 10.1017/S1092852900009007. [PubMed: 14999161].
  • 14. Saisto T, Toivanen R, Salmela-Aro K, Halmesmaki E. Therapeutic group psychoeducation and relaxation in treating fear of childbirth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(11):1315-9. doi: 10.1080/00016340600756920. [PubMed: 17091410].
  • 15. Sapkota D, Baird K, Saito A, Anderson D. Integrated approach to reduce intimate partner violence and improve mental health among pregnant women: Mixed-method study from Nepal. World Acad Sci Eng Technol Int J Health Med Eng. 2018;5(3).
  • 16. Karamoozian M, Askarizadeh G. [Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on anxiety and depression during pregnancy]. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 2014. Persian.
  • 17. Delaram M, Soltanpour F. [The effect of counseling in third trimester on anxiety of nulliparous women at the time of admission for labor]. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012;14(2). Persian.
  • 18. Frederiksen Y, Farver-Vestergaard I, Skovgard NG, Ingerslev HJ, Zachariae R. Efficacy of psychosocial interventions for psychological and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2015;5(1). e006592. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006592. [PubMed: 25631310]. [PubMed Central: PMC4316425].
  • 19. Bittner A, Peukert J, Zimmermann C, Junge-Hoffmeister J, Parker LS, Stobel-Richter Y, et al. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2014;28(3):185-95. doi: 10.1097/JPN.0000000000000027. [PubMed: 25062520].
  • 20. Saisto T, Halmesmaki E. Fear of childbirth can be treated, and cesarean section on maternal request avoided. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(9):1148-9. author reply 1149-50. doi: 10.1080/00016340701516702. [PubMed: 17712663].
  • 21. Mirzaee F, Kaviani M, Jafari P. [Effect of reflexology on anxiety level in nuliparous women]. J Hayat. 2010;16(1). Persian.
  • 22. Najafi F, Abouzari-Gazafroodi K, Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari F, Rahnama P, Gholami Chaboki B. [Relationship between attendance at childbirth preparation classes and fear of childbirth and type of delivery]. J Hayat. 2016;21(4):30-40. Persian.
  • 23. Mahram B. Standardization of Spielberger's test anxiety inventory in Mashhad. Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University; 1994.
  • 24. Rahimi F, Ahmadi M, Rosta F, Majd HA, Valiani M. [Effect of relaxation training on pregnancy anxiety in high risk women]. Saf Promot Inj Prev. 2015;2(3):180-8. Persian.
  • 25. Alipour Z, Lamyian M, Hajizadeh E. [Fear of childbirth, trait anxiety and quality sleep in pregnancy and birth outcomes in nulliparous woman]. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil. 2012;15(28):21-30. Persian.
  • 26. Sercekus P, Baskale H. Effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and parental attachment. Midwifery. 2016;34:166-72. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2015.11.016. [PubMed: 26656473].
  • 27. Gokce Isbir G, Inci F, Onal H, Yildiz PD. The effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth: an experimental study. Appl Nurs Res. 2016;32:227-32. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2016.07.013. [PubMed: 27969033].
  • 28. Davis E. Heart and hands: a midwife's guide to pregnancy and birth. Random House Digital, Inc; 2004.
  • 29. Akbarzadeh M, Toosi M, Zare N, Sharif F. [Effect of relaxation and attachment behaviors training on anxiety in first-time mothers in Shiraz city, 2010: A randomized clinical trial]. Qom Univ Med Sci J. 2013;6(4):14-23. Persian.
  • 30. Moghadasi M, Soltanahmadi Z, Azizzadeh Forozi M, Mahdizadeh A, Jahani Y. [The effect of supportive counseling on reducing the anxiety of women at risk of preterm birth]. J Nurs Midwifery Urmia Univ Med Sci. 2016;14(2):151-8. Persian.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments